Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Text analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Text examination - Essay Example Shockingly very little exertion on the depiction of the Africans Americans in the TV has been embraced (Campbell 11). Transporting and isolation have been the early types of bigotry related with the U.S. news throwing; these issues could fuel the whites to racial bias of the African Americans (Campbell 12). The writer has composed that Africans Americans were ordinarily connected with neediness. They were over spoken to poor as indicated by the substance examination of the creator (Campbell 12). By this investigation of them been poor in the news TVs, Africans Americans could likewise bear issues related with neediness, for example, sluggishness and the under perception of the government assistance help (Campbell 13). Entman did an investigation on this issue whereby his outcomes demonstrated that Africans Americans introduction happened to a great extent as wrongdoing casualties (Campbell 14). Africans Americans were bound to show up in wrongdoing destinations and as culprits in medicate issues on the vast majority of the neighborhood news (Campbell 14). Another perception was that the Africans Americans political intrigue was typically restricted in the news introduction (Campbell 15). This propagation required the Africans Americans to speak more loudly to so as their hearing could happen (Campbell 15). The creator is showing how generalizations, organize news, and present day prejudice identify with each other (Campbell 16). As indicated by this documentation, Africans Americans are normally connected with the jobs, for example, uproarious government officials, crooks and poor residents on the updates on a nearby system. The expansion in present day bigotry prompts three segments (Campbell 16). First is the protection from the political requests of the African Americans, furthermore is the general antagonistic vibe that is depicted genuinely towards the Africans Americans, in conclusion is the faith in the passing of prejudice and that the racial segregation no longer restrains the accomplishment of the African Americans (Campbell 17). As per the creator, African

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Story of an Hour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

The Story of an Hour - Essay Example He later educated - Josephine-Mrs. Mallard’s sister. She is currently entrusted with the obligation to advise her weak sister that her dearest spouse died in the disastrous mishap. This more likely than not been a massive errand since it was difficult to break such news to her sister and she didn't have the foggiest idea how to do it without causing more damage than the circumstance had just introduced. A great many musings more likely than not been confounding Josephine’s mind. She probably thought about how her sister will take the news, the impact the news would have on her heart. She even thought about consider the possibility that she broke the news and her sister couldn't take it that she additionally kicks the bucket. The sort of difficulty that Josephine experienced was difficult yet in addition expected her to be solid for her sister. Her falling into a lamenting state of mind was impossible since she was to be her sister’s column during such difficult o ccasions. When Josephine at long last breaks the news to Mrs. Mallard, she is blasted by sorrow and she cries at her sisters’ arm. She is enormously influenced by the loss of her significant other. At the point when she was unable to take it any longer, she went into her room and bolted herself. Mary Chopin clarifies the degree of the misery when she says â€Å"She sat with her head tossed back upon the pad of the seat, very unmoving, aside from when a cry came up into her throat and shook her, as a kid who has wept late into the night keeps on crying in its dreams† (The Story of an Hour, 476). The composing plainly delineates the degree of the sadness. Securing herself her and closing every other person out shows how right now she saw her reality finishing because of the loss of her significant other. She was as yet youthful but then at this young age endures such an extraordinary blow. This disengagement more likely than not stressed the sister too. As much as she needed to give, her space to lament she likewise needed to be close by and comfort her. This stressed Josephine that she proceeded to thump at the entryway of Mrs. Mallard’s room

Sunday, August 16, 2020

New Student Series Part 7 Ximena Mata COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

New Student Series Part 7 Ximena Mata COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog For Part 7  of our series, meet Ximena Mata Zenteno.  Ximena  is a driven young woman, whos currently working at the Permanent Mission of Mexico to the United Nations, and has learned how to use sports as a tool for development and peace, she says.  She  hopes to instill a love of sports and develop  strong sports-related policies in her community in Puebla, Mexico after graduating from SIPA. Full Name: Ximena Mata Zenteno Program:   Master of Public Administration Concentration:  Economic and Political Development Specialization: International Organization UN Studies Anticipated Graduation Year: 2017 Hometown: Puebla, Mexico Undergraduate university, major and graduation year: Universidad de las Americas Puebla UDLAP. Puebla, Mexico. BA in International Law 2013 What’s your professional background? I started practicing Taekwondo at the age of 5. As a young woman from a developing country, Taekwondo empowered me to stand out in an unequal society through a discipline once considered for men. Sports conferred me the honor of representing my country in international competitions, and allowed me to study Law with a full scholarship offered by the University. At the age of 21, in the middle of my undergraduate studies, I was appointed Director General of the Municipal Sports Institute of Puebla; it was a 1.6 million people city when the Major entrusted me such responsibility. As a public official, I saw first-hand how sports transformed other people’s lives too. Thanks to the programs my team and I developed in Puebla, we influenced more than half of the city’s population. Moreover, I lead organization of the World Taekwondo Championships for the first time in Mexico. After completing my Law studies and my tenure at the Sports Institute, I joined the Permanent Mission of Mexico to the United Nations. At the UN, I have increased my understanding of sport as a tool for development and peace, and I have learned more about the world conflicts by covering the works of the Security Council. Did you apply to SIPA to change careers or to gain experience in a career path you already have experience in? I applied to SIPA to strengthen my professional experience in Public Administration, to better understand the problems that the developing world faces in matters of human development, and to acquire a powerful toolkit to promote effective solutions.   What was your reaction when you found out you were accepted to SIPA? I cried. When I received the “Your Decision is Ready” email, my heartbeat started to accelerate.   I immediately called my boyfriend through FaceTime, he was my strongest supporter in the process, and we both waited for the link to show the final decision. When I saw the virtual confetti and read the “congratulations” word, I started to cry and that is when we both knew I was admitted. I called my parents and my siblings to share the joy, and even when the crying made it difficult to speak, they were as excited as I was with the news. Why did you say yes to SIPA? I said yes to SIPA because SIPA said yes to me. I have always dreamed of studying at  such a wonderful university, and I am glad that Columbia gave me the chance of being part of its community. What do you most look forward to as a graduate student at SIPA? I believe that SIPA is the place where I can strengthen my economic and quantitative skills, enhance my policy-analysis capabilities and acquire an education based in real-world problems and solutions.  In addition to  the academic aspects, I look forward to meeting extraordinary people, committed to make a positive difference in the world. Do you have any apprehensions about starting graduate school? No. I am thrilled to begin with this experience! Photo courtesy of Ximena Mata Zenteno. What are your goals after SIPA? I want to go back to Mexico, where I plan to design and implement sports policies focused on three areas: 1) Crime Prevention, by involving children and youth in organized sports rather than in organized crime; 2) Health Improvement, by helping people introduce sports in their lifestyles; and 3) Educational Level Increase, by encouraging athletes to pursue higher educational standards, without compromising their sports goals. If you could change one small thing about your community, country or the world, what would it be? When I was in the Taekwondo National Team, I dreamed of representing my country at the Olympic Games. Sadly, I had to choose between the National Team and University (UDLAP) because it was not possible to pursue both at the same time. I aimed for a high-quality education and therefore chose University, compromising my Olympic dream. I wish that future athletes would not have to choose between these two paths anymore. Instead, they ought to be encouraged to pair their sports goals with their professional careers to attain a balanced development. This is the cause I am fighting for. Tell us something interesting about yourself: I still practice taekwondo! I want to keep training and participating in competitions as long as my body allows it. I also love writing. When I was 20, I wrote an autobiography that was published a year later. In 2014, I traveled around the world in 80 days (yes, as Jules Verne’s book), visiting 20 countries and 40 cities, and it was one of the greatest experiences in my life! If youd like to participate in the series, please email us at  to share your personal admissions story,  what your summer vacation will entail/did entail, or anything else you think your peers would enjoy reading about! You may submit a blog post of your choosing, or submit the  New Student Survey with pre-populated questions to get you started. And don’t forget  to submit  a photo or two to help us visualize your story!

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Where Do Fruit Flies Come From

Have you ever found your kitchen teeming with fruit flies that seemed to have appeared out of nowhere? These tiny nuisances can quickly multiply in number, and they are tough to get rid of once they arrive. So, how did these fruit flies end up in your kitchen? Heres a hint: It isnt a case of spontaneous generation. Fruit Flies Follow Fermenting Fruit What we consider fruit flies includes a number of small flies in the family Drosophilidae, such as the species Drosophila melanogaster (the common fruit fly) and Drosophila suzukii (the Asian fruit fly). These insects are very small—about two to four millimeters long—and vary in color from yellow to brown to black. They are found throughout the world but are most common in tropical areas with humid climates. Fruit flies are built to find fermenting fruit. Though small, they can detect the smell of ripe fruits and vegetables from a good distance away; if theres a bowl of fruit on your kitchen counter, theres probably a fruit fly or two looking for a way into your home to get to it. Because these insects are so tiny, they can get in through window screens or crevices around windows or doors. Once inside, they lay eggs on the skin of very ripe or fermenting fruit. They reproduce, and before you know it, youve got yourself a full-fledged fruit fly infestation. Sometimes, fruit flies hitch a ride into your home on fruits or vegetables. Yes, those bananas you brought home from the grocery store may already harbor a new generation of fruit flies. If you let your tomatoes over ripen on the vine before picking them, you may be harvesting fruit fly eggs along with your crop. All unrefrigerated fruit, whether its on display at the grocery store, still in the garden, or sitting in a bowl on your kitchen table, may attract fruit flies. 1:22 Watch Now: Where Fruit Flies Come From (and How to Get Rid of Them) How a Few Fruit Flies Quickly Becomes  an Infestation Fruit flies have notoriously fast life cycles; they can go from egg to adult in just eight days. That means that one overly ripe tomato left unused on your counter can give rise to a small fruit fly swarm within a week. Fruit flies are also known for their persistence once indoors.  Although a female fruit fly adult will only live about a month at best, she can lay 500 eggs in that short time.  The insects dont even need fruit to keep reproducing. Fruit flies can breed in the slime layer inside slow-draining plumbing or on an old, sour mop or sponge. This is why even if you get rid of all your fruit, you can still find your home infested with fruit flies. Get Rid of Fruit Flies for Good To extinguish a fruit fly infestation, youll need to eliminate all possible food sources and make your home inhospitable to breeding adult fruit flies.  One of the best ways to catch breeding adults quickly is to make  a vinegar trap. Other tips and tricks for getting rid of fruit flies include throwing out old fruits and vegetables, cleaning recycling bins and trash cans, and replacing old sponges and rags. A thorough cleaning will ensure that your kitchen is free of anything that might attract these pests.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine - 1094 Words

Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine Introduction When it comes to the Guatemalan syphilis experiment and the Tuskegee experiment both were two unique experiments. Recently, the United States apologized last year for the experiment, done in Tuskegee which was meant to test the drug penicillin. However, Two years before that, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius made an apology for the experiment conducted in Guatemala. With that said, the researcher rejects the case that a utilitarian could make the case that the Guatemalan syphilis study was more ethically defensible than the Tuskegee study, because the Guatemalan study had greater potential to lead to useful medical knowledge that could save many lives, while the Tuskegee study did not have any such potential (Bonnie Steinbock, 2005). I believe that neither experiment was for medical knowledge or served and medicinal purpose and that What is a Utilitarian? Basically, in defining the perspective of a utilitarian focuses on the concerns that actions or policies could possibly have on the good fortune (utility) of all persons directly or indirectly affected by the policy or action. The standard makes the following point: Of any two actions, the most ethical one will produce the greatest balance of benefits over harms. (Bonnie Steinbock, 2005) Many would probably look at it as a way of taking advantage of happiness and plummeting suffering The Tuskegee Study The Tuskegee Syphilis StudyShow MoreRelatedThe Hippocratic Oath Of Modern Medicine892 Words   |  4 Pagesfield of medicine, having been established more than 2,400 years ago (Hulkower 41). It can also be termed as the most popular. The oath has been classified into classical and modern versions today, but still bears a lot of significance to medical students and practitioners. Written in antiquity, the principles of the Oath are held as sacred by physicians to date. The Hippocratic Oath is credited to Hippocrates, a Greek physician of the 5th century B.C., who is also known as the father of Modern medicineRead MoreEthical Issues Facing The Healthcare Industry905 Words   |  4 Pageswill highlight some key ethical issues facing the healthcare industry as a whole, as well as hospice agencies specifically. In this program, I will reference ethical principles used today as well as reference historical ethicists and philosophers that backup the items outlined in this ethics program. There are two major topics to be discussed. The first will be how to treat patients that are at the end of their life, which includes their loved ones as well. A specific issue to be addressed in termsRead MoreThe Ethics of Reductionism in the Medical Sciences1558 Words   |  7 Pagessocial and economic atmosphere) are also critical in obtaining a fully developed scope of medical understanding (Lloyd, 2002). Finally, I will discuss the ethical duty that is inherent in medicine to view a patient as a whole human being. Alfred Tauber asserts that there is an unsteady balance of holism and reductionism in modern medicine. He recounts the history of reductionism in which scientists opposed romanticism and sought to describe the world in non-personal terms in order to vigorouslyRead MoreModern vs. Hippocratic Oath1257 Words   |  6 Pagesof medicine there has always been a need for shared commitment to ideals of moral, ethical and humane practice. The Hippocratic Oath, created by a compilation of works largely based on Hippocrates, has always stood as guidelines for the conduct of physicians. The Classical oath has and continues to serve well in preserving the sanctity of the medical profession while developing a basis for the respectful treatment of patients. However, this out-dated oath is not equipped to handle the modern trialsRead MoreEthical Issues Of Death And Dying1324 Words   |à ‚  6 PagesEthical Issues of Death and Dying There are many ethical issues that the medical field faces daily. One major issue that is a common debate recently is death and dying and the ethical dilemmas associated with this stage in life. There are many different routes a patient can take when they are diagnosed with a terminal illness, two routes that are often up for debate are palliative care and physician assisted suicide. Many ethical concepts are brought up in the debate of these routes of care, sometimesRead MoreBioprinting Human Organs: The Past, Present, And Future.1488 Words   |  6 Pages Table of Contents: I. Introduction II. History of Organ Transplants III. Development of Bioprinting IV. Current Bioprinting Processes V. Bioprinting Human Organs for Transplantation VI. Insurance Coverage for Organ Transplants VII. Ethical Considerations and Alternative Ideas VIII. The Future of Bioprinting IX. Conclusion I. Introduction In this white paper, we will look at the topic of bioprinting, explaining what it is, how it is done, andRead MoreAnimal Testing: Pros and Cons Essay1021 Words   |  5 Pages The ethical treatment and testing on animals is a widely controversial subject in the field of zoology. Views on animal testing range from positivity to full negativity. Animals such as mice and rats have been found to have psychological and genetic similarities that relate to humans which make them perfect for the experimental trials. Before various products are put out for humans consumption, animals are the most common way for companies to see if their new inventions work. The benefits andRead MorePrinciples Of The Ethical Practice Of Public Health Services830 Words   |  4 Pagesthese Ethical Codes of Conduct establish an important role in regards to maintaining medical professionalism, these standards of practice also establish the boundaries and guidelines to how each patient receives individual care or treatment. There are many documents created for specific types of medical professions, yet their overall concepts and ideas remain the same. For example, â€Å"Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health† states a generalized summary of topics towards ethical approachesRead MoreThe Ethics Of The Medical Field947 Words   |  4 Pagescomplete apathy and empathy towards patients. â€Å"Nothing is more indispensable to ethics and, at the same time, more detrimental to the ethical quality of a decision than an emotion.†[] What are the advantages and disadvantages of an emotional response? Should doctors use emotions? Emotions such as compassion, fear, and anger can be influential factors in making an ethical decision. Most doctors enter the medical field because they want to help their patients, relieve their pain, and support them emotionallyRead MoreThe Impact of Ethical Decisions on the Discovery of Knowledge in the Natural Science and Art1075 Words   |  5 Pagesethics are interconnected but ethics is hindering what science can achieve. The knowledge issue I will be addressing is what impact do ethical decisions have on limiting the discovery of knowledge in the natural sciences and arts? One day in biology class we were discussing the potential benefits of the harvesting of embryotic stem cells and how these cells could potentially help save lives, however one of the issues to the stem cell argument was, if stem cell research was to be conducted then scientists

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Antonio Lopez Free Essays

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was born on March 21, 1794 in Jalapa, Vera Cruz and died in 1876, in Mexico City. Santa Anna had started in the military in 1810 as a cadet at the age of 16, and was promoted to Brigadier General in 1822. In 1828 Santa Anna became the governor of Vera Cruz. We will write a custom essay sample on Antonio Lopez or any similar topic only for you Order Now He became governor again in Vera Cruz in the year 1829. Then in 1833 he was elected the president of Mexico. Santa Anna led the Mexican attack on the Alamo in Texas in the year 1835. Santa Anna eventually captured the Alamo. The Texans recorded 257 deaths and the Mexican Army had between 400-600 deaths. Later on his carelessness in the end allowed Sam Houston to win the battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna was able to gain back his authority when the French invaded Vera Cruz in 1838. He was considered a hero after he had many horses shot from underneath him and lost half of his left leg. In 1842 he arranged ceremony to find his foot and parade it in Mexico City and placed it as a monument for everyone to see. Santa Anna fought in the Mexican War and sold land to the United States called the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. In 1854 a young officer named Bonito Juarez banned Santa Anna from Mexico for ten years and Santa Anna later returned before his death. He was driven out of Mexico for having too much power and control over the country. He later returned to Mexico in 1867. He once again tried to regain more power in 1867. Before he could he was taken prisoner and condemned to the firing squad. Instead he and his family were exiled out of Mexico. He then returned to Mexico in 1874 and then died two years later at the age of 82. Santa Anna was significant to the Spanish world because he believed and fought for his country. He was also important to the Spanish world because he was a dictator of Mexico for many years. He served in the military, was president eleven times of Mexico, and was the governor of Vera Cruz twice. Santa Anna was also important because he was forced to give land to the United States called the Gadsden Purchase. He led the Mexican army to attack the Alamo and was also the leader in that battle. He had defeated many armies and leaders when he was serving in the military. Santa Anna was in the military for most of his life. All these things are important about Santa Anna and are important to the Spanish world. He was very important and no one will ever forget the famous Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and what he did. I think Santa Anna was a pretty brave man because he went through all of those battles for his country, had lost his leg, and was imprisoned in Sisal, Yucatan. I also think Santa Anna wanted way too much power because he kept trying to take over the military and the country. Also I think he deserved to be banned from the country for ten years because he was trying to get to much power. I think Santa Anna had a pretty unique life because he was president of Mexico, he was governor of Vera Cruz, and was high ranked in the military. I think Santa Anna did some weird things because he had set up a ceremony to find his lost leg and had set it up on a monument for everyone to see it and admire it. I think it was nice that his wife wanted to be buried with him before she died because that shows that his wife really cared about him. I have learned many things about Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna as in what he did and how he lived. He was one of the most famous Spanish people and I enjoyed learning about him. How to cite Antonio Lopez, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Plasticity in web design in the spider Parawixia bistriata a response to variable prey type Essay Example For Students

Plasticity in web design in the spider Parawixia bistriata: a response to variable prey type Essay Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism or genotype to express an alternative morphology, phys iology or behaviour in response to environmental stimuli (Schlichting 1986). Plasticity is a trait in itself, subjected to natural selection and evolutionary change (Bradshaw 1965) Foraging strategies of gen- eralist predators am Ã'‡Ð °Ã ³Ã'Æ' from n single generalized strategy to a repertoire of very specialized strategies. Plasticity in foraging strategies should be favoured if specialized strategics are levs efficient in capturing the different prey types than generalized ones. Orb weaving spiders are usually considered generalist predators but there is no Ð µÃ'‡ ideiKe that they can alter their webs in response to different types of prey Although within-spccics variation in web design has been well documented, it has been attributed to fac tors other than prey capture, such as restricted space for the web. wind, rain or starvation (Craig 1989: sev eral examples cited in F.berhard 1990 and Hcnschcl Lubin 1990). How should web design vary with prey type? To maximize the probability that prey will be captured when a limited amount of silk is produced, a web should have the largest area that does not compromise the efficiency of contact between sveb and insect; this is achieved when the mesh size equals the jirey sic. For the same amount of silk, a smaller web with finer mesh may be required to stop and retain a heavy or fast-flying prey without it breaking through the web (F.bcrtiard 1990) (the words stopping’ and ‘retention’ arc used as defined in the review by F.bcrh «rd 1990 meaning the absorption of the prey energy and the adhesion of the prey until the spider arrises, respec tively ». This is because the kinetic energy of the prey is a positive function of its mass and velocity. Thus, a spiders capture success may depend on the size (area or standard length), weight and Hying speed of llie prcv. Evidence from comparaiive studies suggests that some nocturnal spider s that capture heavy, fast flying prey have webs of relatively narrow mesh (Fbcrhard 1986) but in general, web design is not considered to be fmc-luncd to specific prey types (F.berhard 1990). A Brazilian colonial spider Parawixia bistrkihi Rengger 1936 (Arancidac) has been observed spin ning two distinct types of webs which differed in size and architecture. The question is, can these differ ences be attributed to sanation in prey type avail ability? Parawixia bistrxata is a colonial orb-weaving spider commonly found in cerrado (savanna) vegeta tion in South America. Its life cycle is univoltinc and dcs-clopnirnt within the colony and the population as   a whole is synchronous (Gorgonio 1978: Gobbi 1979; Sandoval 1987; Fowler Gobbi 1988). Spidcrlings from lbe second to fifth instars typically feed during sunset; after the fifth instar spiders feed only at night, For both activity periods, all member » of each colony spin their individual orb webs simultaneously, term ing a large net of linked orb-wchs. At the end of the feeding period, each spider ingests its own web and retreats to a communal aggregation until the next day (Gobbi 1979; Sandovul 1987). Unusual webs were occasionally spun during the day: their occurrence was temporally correlated with local termite swarms. These daytime’ webs were observed every Septem ber. during a 3-year study of the foraging and social behaviour of P. bistriata Here, die temporal and mor phological characteristics of webs and prey observed at sunset and daytime are compared. Outline1 Materials and methods2 Results3 WEB DESIGNS Materials and methods This study was conducted over 5ha of undisturbed habitat (cerrado vegetation) of P. bistriaia in Itira pina. Siio Paulo, Brazil. The occurrence of each web type of II colonics in .September 1984 and five colonies in September 1985 was counted over several days. These web types were easily distinguished (sec Fig. I). To quantify differences between web types, detailed measurements of web dimensions were taken from randomly selected webs of oik colony in 1986 because, in this colony, all individuals spun sunset webs and most of them also spun daytime webs the following day. Ibis indicates that both web types were spun by the same individuals within a short time period, litis procedure was necessary a » individuals were nor marked because previous attempts had   shown that marked individuals may not spin webs the next day. Furthermore, if a different number of spi ders spun w ebs on different days, the cause of change in web design could be attributed to variation in space available for web building. From the webs of this colony web and hub diameters were measured, and the spiral and rndii numbers of 10 randomly chosen webs spun at sunset were counted (see Table 2 for definition of web characteristics. .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .postImageUrl , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:hover , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:visited , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:active { border:0!important; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:active , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Total Physical Response EssayThese measure ments were repeated the next day when the spiders built daytime webs. From these data, die mean mesh size was calculated, defined here as the mean distance between two spiral turns. To calculate mesh size, the web radii minus the hub radii was divided by the number of spiral turns, The total length of silk used per web was calculated by adding the length of all spirals and radii. The size of insects captured was observed and recorded in five colonics (three colonics in 1984 and two colonies in 19851 at sunset, when one of the web types was spun daily. The length and width of the prey trapped in an area of 1 m2 dial comprised sever al webs, during a period of 30 min was measured All the prey captured in daytime webs of three colonics in 1984 were recorded immediately after termites hÐ µd swan nod. Available prey (flying insects) were sampled with standard sticky traps. Three 40 x 40cm clear plastic sheets coated with polybutanc (an odourless, trans- parent substance i were attached to a pole at heights of 0 5 m. 15 m and 2-5 m. This was the height range where the spiders normally spun their webs. Sticky trap » were about 5 m away from the colony from which web dimensions and observations of prey cap- ture were recorded All the insects were collected from the traps after six I h intervals to estimate diurnal variation in flight activity of prey (from 6.Ð ¨ to 20 00 h). This procedure was necessary because preliminary sampling had indicated that the availability of different prey types changed rapidly throughout the day. Trapping was repeated on 4 separate days: 3 days in 1984 (27 September, termite swarms p resent; 24 and 25 October, termites not present) and I day in 1985 (28 September, termites not prescru). To evaluate the effectiveness of tlic two web types in trapping prey of different sizes the size of prey cap- tured by the webs was compared with the size of those prey caught by sticky traps using a Kolmogorov- Smimov test. Only die samples and obsersations that were taken simultaneously were used for these com- parisons Results MIL OF FORAGING ACTIVITY OF SPIDERS AND THEIR PREY Of the II colonics whose sumct webs were counted (90-800 individuals, mean  ±SL = 290012150).  Ã‚  Only one colony contained some individuals that did not construct webs. Thus. 92-5% of all spiders observed in September 1984 and 1985 during sunset constructed sunset webs In these colonies, sunset web building began between 16.00 and I7.00h . Sunset occurred at approximately 18 00h The time of foraging activity at sunset coincided with the lime that small prey were most abundant The periodicity of flight activity of these prey was very predictable and varied little between days . In comrast. daytime webs were spun at variable times, always around the peak of termite swarms; usually within 30 mm before or after the termite swarm began (Table II. The variation in time of web-spin ning activity was not owing to variation in age or m/Ã'  of spiders as different colonies of P. bistiiaia have synchronous development (Sandoval 1987) All ter mite swarms observed occurred during rain Unlike the small (lies, termites had variable periodicity of flight activity. Nonetheless, the spiders were able to track their availability over time The two types of webs were never observed to occur simultaneously and daytime webs were ingested before the sunset webs were spun. Termites were never observed dur ing sunset and daytime webs were never observed in the absence of termite swarms. WEB DESIGNS Daytime and sunset webs differed significantly in a number of key dimensions in tlic colony studied and could easily be distinguished by eye. The mesh size of daytime webs was. on average, three times larger than sunset webs (Fig. I. Table 2). Mesh enlargement resulted from both an 82% increase in web diameter and a 57% decrease in the number of spiral turns. Tlvcic was no overlap in these dimensions for the two web types The amount of silk did not differ between the two web types (Table 2). Because the number of radii and spirals were smaller and the area was larger in daytime webs than in sunset webs, then, all else being equal, daytime webs were probably weaker for stopping prey. Although web measurements were taken from a single colony, the dimorphism in mesh si/c and diameter was observed m 10 other colonies (Table 11. Ibis dimorphism was not a result of varia tion in sie, age or individual variation in behaviour within colonics because the development within colonies was extrem ely synchronous (Sandoval 1987)   and all individuals spun their webs at both activity periods when webs were measured Furthermore, daytime webs wen; unique to day activity and sunset webs were unique to sunset activity. 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