Sunday, May 24, 2020

Where Do Fruit Flies Come From

Have you ever found your kitchen teeming with fruit flies that seemed to have appeared out of nowhere? These tiny nuisances can quickly multiply in number, and they are tough to get rid of once they arrive. So, how did these fruit flies end up in your kitchen? Heres a hint: It isnt a case of spontaneous generation. Fruit Flies Follow Fermenting Fruit What we consider fruit flies includes a number of small flies in the family Drosophilidae, such as the species Drosophila melanogaster (the common fruit fly) and Drosophila suzukii (the Asian fruit fly). These insects are very small—about two to four millimeters long—and vary in color from yellow to brown to black. They are found throughout the world but are most common in tropical areas with humid climates. Fruit flies are built to find fermenting fruit. Though small, they can detect the smell of ripe fruits and vegetables from a good distance away; if theres a bowl of fruit on your kitchen counter, theres probably a fruit fly or two looking for a way into your home to get to it. Because these insects are so tiny, they can get in through window screens or crevices around windows or doors. Once inside, they lay eggs on the skin of very ripe or fermenting fruit. They reproduce, and before you know it, youve got yourself a full-fledged fruit fly infestation. Sometimes, fruit flies hitch a ride into your home on fruits or vegetables. Yes, those bananas you brought home from the grocery store may already harbor a new generation of fruit flies. If you let your tomatoes over ripen on the vine before picking them, you may be harvesting fruit fly eggs along with your crop. All unrefrigerated fruit, whether its on display at the grocery store, still in the garden, or sitting in a bowl on your kitchen table, may attract fruit flies. 1:22 Watch Now: Where Fruit Flies Come From (and How to Get Rid of Them) How a Few Fruit Flies Quickly Becomes  an Infestation Fruit flies have notoriously fast life cycles; they can go from egg to adult in just eight days. That means that one overly ripe tomato left unused on your counter can give rise to a small fruit fly swarm within a week. Fruit flies are also known for their persistence once indoors.  Although a female fruit fly adult will only live about a month at best, she can lay 500 eggs in that short time.  The insects dont even need fruit to keep reproducing. Fruit flies can breed in the slime layer inside slow-draining plumbing or on an old, sour mop or sponge. This is why even if you get rid of all your fruit, you can still find your home infested with fruit flies. Get Rid of Fruit Flies for Good To extinguish a fruit fly infestation, youll need to eliminate all possible food sources and make your home inhospitable to breeding adult fruit flies.  One of the best ways to catch breeding adults quickly is to make  a vinegar trap. Other tips and tricks for getting rid of fruit flies include throwing out old fruits and vegetables, cleaning recycling bins and trash cans, and replacing old sponges and rags. A thorough cleaning will ensure that your kitchen is free of anything that might attract these pests.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine - 1094 Words

Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine Introduction When it comes to the Guatemalan syphilis experiment and the Tuskegee experiment both were two unique experiments. Recently, the United States apologized last year for the experiment, done in Tuskegee which was meant to test the drug penicillin. However, Two years before that, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius made an apology for the experiment conducted in Guatemala. With that said, the researcher rejects the case that a utilitarian could make the case that the Guatemalan syphilis study was more ethically defensible than the Tuskegee study, because the Guatemalan study had greater potential to lead to useful medical knowledge that could save many lives, while the Tuskegee study did not have any such potential (Bonnie Steinbock, 2005). I believe that neither experiment was for medical knowledge or served and medicinal purpose and that What is a Utilitarian? Basically, in defining the perspective of a utilitarian focuses on the concerns that actions or policies could possibly have on the good fortune (utility) of all persons directly or indirectly affected by the policy or action. The standard makes the following point: Of any two actions, the most ethical one will produce the greatest balance of benefits over harms. (Bonnie Steinbock, 2005) Many would probably look at it as a way of taking advantage of happiness and plummeting suffering The Tuskegee Study The Tuskegee Syphilis StudyShow MoreRelatedThe Hippocratic Oath Of Modern Medicine892 Words   |  4 Pagesfield of medicine, having been established more than 2,400 years ago (Hulkower 41). It can also be termed as the most popular. The oath has been classified into classical and modern versions today, but still bears a lot of significance to medical students and practitioners. Written in antiquity, the principles of the Oath are held as sacred by physicians to date. The Hippocratic Oath is credited to Hippocrates, a Greek physician of the 5th century B.C., who is also known as the father of Modern medicineRead MoreEthical Issues Facing The Healthcare Industry905 Words   |  4 Pageswill highlight some key ethical issues facing the healthcare industry as a whole, as well as hospice agencies specifically. In this program, I will reference ethical principles used today as well as reference historical ethicists and philosophers that backup the items outlined in this ethics program. There are two major topics to be discussed. The first will be how to treat patients that are at the end of their life, which includes their loved ones as well. A specific issue to be addressed in termsRead MoreThe Ethics of Reductionism in the Medical Sciences1558 Words   |  7 Pagessocial and economic atmosphere) are also critical in obtaining a fully developed scope of medical understanding (Lloyd, 2002). Finally, I will discuss the ethical duty that is inherent in medicine to view a patient as a whole human being. Alfred Tauber asserts that there is an unsteady balance of holism and reductionism in modern medicine. He recounts the history of reductionism in which scientists opposed romanticism and sought to describe the world in non-personal terms in order to vigorouslyRead MoreModern vs. Hippocratic Oath1257 Words   |  6 Pagesof medicine there has always been a need for shared commitment to ideals of moral, ethical and humane practice. The Hippocratic Oath, created by a compilation of works largely based on Hippocrates, has always stood as guidelines for the conduct of physicians. The Classical oath has and continues to serve well in preserving the sanctity of the medical profession while developing a basis for the respectful treatment of patients. However, this out-dated oath is not equipped to handle the modern trialsRead MoreEthical Issues Of Death And Dying1324 Words   |à ‚  6 PagesEthical Issues of Death and Dying There are many ethical issues that the medical field faces daily. One major issue that is a common debate recently is death and dying and the ethical dilemmas associated with this stage in life. There are many different routes a patient can take when they are diagnosed with a terminal illness, two routes that are often up for debate are palliative care and physician assisted suicide. Many ethical concepts are brought up in the debate of these routes of care, sometimesRead MoreBioprinting Human Organs: The Past, Present, And Future.1488 Words   |  6 Pages Table of Contents: I. Introduction II. History of Organ Transplants III. Development of Bioprinting IV. Current Bioprinting Processes V. Bioprinting Human Organs for Transplantation VI. Insurance Coverage for Organ Transplants VII. Ethical Considerations and Alternative Ideas VIII. The Future of Bioprinting IX. Conclusion I. Introduction In this white paper, we will look at the topic of bioprinting, explaining what it is, how it is done, andRead MoreAnimal Testing: Pros and Cons Essay1021 Words   |  5 Pages The ethical treatment and testing on animals is a widely controversial subject in the field of zoology. Views on animal testing range from positivity to full negativity. Animals such as mice and rats have been found to have psychological and genetic similarities that relate to humans which make them perfect for the experimental trials. Before various products are put out for humans consumption, animals are the most common way for companies to see if their new inventions work. The benefits andRead MorePrinciples Of The Ethical Practice Of Public Health Services830 Words   |  4 Pagesthese Ethical Codes of Conduct establish an important role in regards to maintaining medical professionalism, these standards of practice also establish the boundaries and guidelines to how each patient receives individual care or treatment. There are many documents created for specific types of medical professions, yet their overall concepts and ideas remain the same. For example, â€Å"Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health† states a generalized summary of topics towards ethical approachesRead MoreThe Ethics Of The Medical Field947 Words   |  4 Pagescomplete apathy and empathy towards patients. â€Å"Nothing is more indispensable to ethics and, at the same time, more detrimental to the ethical quality of a decision than an emotion.†[] What are the advantages and disadvantages of an emotional response? Should doctors use emotions? Emotions such as compassion, fear, and anger can be influential factors in making an ethical decision. Most doctors enter the medical field because they want to help their patients, relieve their pain, and support them emotionallyRead MoreThe Impact of Ethical Decisions on the Discovery of Knowledge in the Natural Science and Art1075 Words   |  5 Pagesethics are interconnected but ethics is hindering what science can achieve. The knowledge issue I will be addressing is what impact do ethical decisions have on limiting the discovery of knowledge in the natural sciences and arts? One day in biology class we were discussing the potential benefits of the harvesting of embryotic stem cells and how these cells could potentially help save lives, however one of the issues to the stem cell argument was, if stem cell research was to be conducted then scientists

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Antonio Lopez Free Essays

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was born on March 21, 1794 in Jalapa, Vera Cruz and died in 1876, in Mexico City. Santa Anna had started in the military in 1810 as a cadet at the age of 16, and was promoted to Brigadier General in 1822. In 1828 Santa Anna became the governor of Vera Cruz. We will write a custom essay sample on Antonio Lopez or any similar topic only for you Order Now He became governor again in Vera Cruz in the year 1829. Then in 1833 he was elected the president of Mexico. Santa Anna led the Mexican attack on the Alamo in Texas in the year 1835. Santa Anna eventually captured the Alamo. The Texans recorded 257 deaths and the Mexican Army had between 400-600 deaths. Later on his carelessness in the end allowed Sam Houston to win the battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna was able to gain back his authority when the French invaded Vera Cruz in 1838. He was considered a hero after he had many horses shot from underneath him and lost half of his left leg. In 1842 he arranged ceremony to find his foot and parade it in Mexico City and placed it as a monument for everyone to see. Santa Anna fought in the Mexican War and sold land to the United States called the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. In 1854 a young officer named Bonito Juarez banned Santa Anna from Mexico for ten years and Santa Anna later returned before his death. He was driven out of Mexico for having too much power and control over the country. He later returned to Mexico in 1867. He once again tried to regain more power in 1867. Before he could he was taken prisoner and condemned to the firing squad. Instead he and his family were exiled out of Mexico. He then returned to Mexico in 1874 and then died two years later at the age of 82. Santa Anna was significant to the Spanish world because he believed and fought for his country. He was also important to the Spanish world because he was a dictator of Mexico for many years. He served in the military, was president eleven times of Mexico, and was the governor of Vera Cruz twice. Santa Anna was also important because he was forced to give land to the United States called the Gadsden Purchase. He led the Mexican army to attack the Alamo and was also the leader in that battle. He had defeated many armies and leaders when he was serving in the military. Santa Anna was in the military for most of his life. All these things are important about Santa Anna and are important to the Spanish world. He was very important and no one will ever forget the famous Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and what he did. I think Santa Anna was a pretty brave man because he went through all of those battles for his country, had lost his leg, and was imprisoned in Sisal, Yucatan. I also think Santa Anna wanted way too much power because he kept trying to take over the military and the country. Also I think he deserved to be banned from the country for ten years because he was trying to get to much power. I think Santa Anna had a pretty unique life because he was president of Mexico, he was governor of Vera Cruz, and was high ranked in the military. I think Santa Anna did some weird things because he had set up a ceremony to find his lost leg and had set it up on a monument for everyone to see it and admire it. I think it was nice that his wife wanted to be buried with him before she died because that shows that his wife really cared about him. I have learned many things about Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna as in what he did and how he lived. He was one of the most famous Spanish people and I enjoyed learning about him. How to cite Antonio Lopez, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Plasticity in web design in the spider Parawixia bistriata a response to variable prey type Essay Example For Students

Plasticity in web design in the spider Parawixia bistriata: a response to variable prey type Essay Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism or genotype to express an alternative morphology, phys iology or behaviour in response to environmental stimuli (Schlichting 1986). Plasticity is a trait in itself, subjected to natural selection and evolutionary change (Bradshaw 1965) Foraging strategies of gen- eralist predators am Ã'‡Ð °Ã ³Ã'Æ' from n single generalized strategy to a repertoire of very specialized strategies. Plasticity in foraging strategies should be favoured if specialized strategics are levs efficient in capturing the different prey types than generalized ones. Orb weaving spiders are usually considered generalist predators but there is no Ð µÃ'‡ ideiKe that they can alter their webs in response to different types of prey Although within-spccics variation in web design has been well documented, it has been attributed to fac tors other than prey capture, such as restricted space for the web. wind, rain or starvation (Craig 1989: sev eral examples cited in F.berhard 1990 and Hcnschcl Lubin 1990). How should web design vary with prey type? To maximize the probability that prey will be captured when a limited amount of silk is produced, a web should have the largest area that does not compromise the efficiency of contact between sveb and insect; this is achieved when the mesh size equals the jirey sic. For the same amount of silk, a smaller web with finer mesh may be required to stop and retain a heavy or fast-flying prey without it breaking through the web (F.bcrtiard 1990) (the words stopping’ and ‘retention’ arc used as defined in the review by F.bcrh «rd 1990 meaning the absorption of the prey energy and the adhesion of the prey until the spider arrises, respec tively ». This is because the kinetic energy of the prey is a positive function of its mass and velocity. Thus, a spiders capture success may depend on the size (area or standard length), weight and Hying speed of llie prcv. Evidence from comparaiive studies suggests that some nocturnal spider s that capture heavy, fast flying prey have webs of relatively narrow mesh (Fbcrhard 1986) but in general, web design is not considered to be fmc-luncd to specific prey types (F.berhard 1990). A Brazilian colonial spider Parawixia bistrkihi Rengger 1936 (Arancidac) has been observed spin ning two distinct types of webs which differed in size and architecture. The question is, can these differ ences be attributed to sanation in prey type avail ability? Parawixia bistrxata is a colonial orb-weaving spider commonly found in cerrado (savanna) vegeta tion in South America. Its life cycle is univoltinc and dcs-clopnirnt within the colony and the population as   a whole is synchronous (Gorgonio 1978: Gobbi 1979; Sandoval 1987; Fowler Gobbi 1988). Spidcrlings from lbe second to fifth instars typically feed during sunset; after the fifth instar spiders feed only at night, For both activity periods, all member » of each colony spin their individual orb webs simultaneously, term ing a large net of linked orb-wchs. At the end of the feeding period, each spider ingests its own web and retreats to a communal aggregation until the next day (Gobbi 1979; Sandovul 1987). Unusual webs were occasionally spun during the day: their occurrence was temporally correlated with local termite swarms. These daytime’ webs were observed every Septem ber. during a 3-year study of the foraging and social behaviour of P. bistriata Here, die temporal and mor phological characteristics of webs and prey observed at sunset and daytime are compared. Outline1 Materials and methods2 Results3 WEB DESIGNS Materials and methods This study was conducted over 5ha of undisturbed habitat (cerrado vegetation) of P. bistriaia in Itira pina. Siio Paulo, Brazil. The occurrence of each web type of II colonics in .September 1984 and five colonies in September 1985 was counted over several days. These web types were easily distinguished (sec Fig. I). To quantify differences between web types, detailed measurements of web dimensions were taken from randomly selected webs of oik colony in 1986 because, in this colony, all individuals spun sunset webs and most of them also spun daytime webs the following day. Ibis indicates that both web types were spun by the same individuals within a short time period, litis procedure was necessary a » individuals were nor marked because previous attempts had   shown that marked individuals may not spin webs the next day. Furthermore, if a different number of spi ders spun w ebs on different days, the cause of change in web design could be attributed to variation in space available for web building. From the webs of this colony web and hub diameters were measured, and the spiral and rndii numbers of 10 randomly chosen webs spun at sunset were counted (see Table 2 for definition of web characteristics. .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .postImageUrl , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:hover , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:visited , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:active { border:0!important; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:active , .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527 .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9e7630ee3bfe6636054e5750b9267527:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Total Physical Response EssayThese measure ments were repeated the next day when the spiders built daytime webs. From these data, die mean mesh size was calculated, defined here as the mean distance between two spiral turns. To calculate mesh size, the web radii minus the hub radii was divided by the number of spiral turns, The total length of silk used per web was calculated by adding the length of all spirals and radii. The size of insects captured was observed and recorded in five colonics (three colonics in 1984 and two colonies in 19851 at sunset, when one of the web types was spun daily. The length and width of the prey trapped in an area of 1 m2 dial comprised sever al webs, during a period of 30 min was measured All the prey captured in daytime webs of three colonics in 1984 were recorded immediately after termites hÐ µd swan nod. Available prey (flying insects) were sampled with standard sticky traps. Three 40 x 40cm clear plastic sheets coated with polybutanc (an odourless, trans- parent substance i were attached to a pole at heights of 0 5 m. 15 m and 2-5 m. This was the height range where the spiders normally spun their webs. Sticky trap » were about 5 m away from the colony from which web dimensions and observations of prey cap- ture were recorded All the insects were collected from the traps after six I h intervals to estimate diurnal variation in flight activity of prey (from 6.Ð ¨ to 20 00 h). This procedure was necessary because preliminary sampling had indicated that the availability of different prey types changed rapidly throughout the day. Trapping was repeated on 4 separate days: 3 days in 1984 (27 September, termite swarms p resent; 24 and 25 October, termites not present) and I day in 1985 (28 September, termites not prescru). To evaluate the effectiveness of tlic two web types in trapping prey of different sizes the size of prey cap- tured by the webs was compared with the size of those prey caught by sticky traps using a Kolmogorov- Smimov test. Only die samples and obsersations that were taken simultaneously were used for these com- parisons Results MIL OF FORAGING ACTIVITY OF SPIDERS AND THEIR PREY Of the II colonics whose sumct webs were counted (90-800 individuals, mean  ±SL = 290012150).  Ã‚  Only one colony contained some individuals that did not construct webs. Thus. 92-5% of all spiders observed in September 1984 and 1985 during sunset constructed sunset webs In these colonies, sunset web building began between 16.00 and I7.00h . Sunset occurred at approximately 18 00h The time of foraging activity at sunset coincided with the lime that small prey were most abundant The periodicity of flight activity of these prey was very predictable and varied little between days . In comrast. daytime webs were spun at variable times, always around the peak of termite swarms; usually within 30 mm before or after the termite swarm began (Table II. The variation in time of web-spin ning activity was not owing to variation in age or m/Ã'  of spiders as different colonies of P. bistiiaia have synchronous development (Sandoval 1987) All ter mite swarms observed occurred during rain Unlike the small (lies, termites had variable periodicity of flight activity. Nonetheless, the spiders were able to track their availability over time The two types of webs were never observed to occur simultaneously and daytime webs were ingested before the sunset webs were spun. Termites were never observed dur ing sunset and daytime webs were never observed in the absence of termite swarms. WEB DESIGNS Daytime and sunset webs differed significantly in a number of key dimensions in tlic colony studied and could easily be distinguished by eye. The mesh size of daytime webs was. on average, three times larger than sunset webs (Fig. I. Table 2). Mesh enlargement resulted from both an 82% increase in web diameter and a 57% decrease in the number of spiral turns. Tlvcic was no overlap in these dimensions for the two web types The amount of silk did not differ between the two web types (Table 2). Because the number of radii and spirals were smaller and the area was larger in daytime webs than in sunset webs, then, all else being equal, daytime webs were probably weaker for stopping prey. Although web measurements were taken from a single colony, the dimorphism in mesh si/c and diameter was observed m 10 other colonies (Table 11. Ibis dimorphism was not a result of varia tion in sie, age or individual variation in behaviour within colonics because the development within colonies was extrem ely synchronous (Sandoval 1987)   and all individuals spun their webs at both activity periods when webs were measured Furthermore, daytime webs wen; unique to day activity and sunset webs were unique to sunset activity. Thus, it is clear that web dimorphism ill P. bixtriata is the result of plasticity in the web building behaviour of each indi vidual. .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 , .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 .postImageUrl , .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 , .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8:hover , .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8:visited , .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8:active { border:0!important; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8:active , .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8 .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue5a76689021286c0a2cd7e92334839f8:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: How Does Shakespeare's Presentation Of Shylock Affect Our Response To The Character Essay

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Abolitionists Essays - American Slaves, Anglican Saints,

Abolitionists Strategies of Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman, and John Brown Abolitionist Movement was a reform movement during the 18th and 19th centuries. Often called the antislavery movement, it sought to end the enslavement of Africans and people of African descent in Europe, the Americas, and Africa itself. It also aimed to end the Atlantic slave trade carried out in the Atlantic Ocean between Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Many people participated in trying to end slavery. These people became known as the abolitionists. The three well-known abolitionists are Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman, and John Brown. Sojourner Truth (1797-1883), born into slavery as Isabella, was an American abolitionist and an advocate of women's rights. She joined the abolitionist movement and became a travelling preacher. She took her new name-Sojourner Truth-in 1843 and began preaching along the eastern seaboard. Her strategy consisted of walking through Long Island and Connecticut, speaking to people about her life and her relationship with God. She was a powerful speaker and singer. When she rose to speak, wrote one observer, her commanding figure and dignified manner hushed every trifler to silence. Audiences were melted into tears by her touching stories. She traveled and spoke widely. Encountering the women's rights movement in 1850, Truth added its causes to hers. She is particularly remembered for the famous Ain't I a Woman? speech she gave at the woman's rights convention in 1851. Although Truth never learned to read or write, she dictated her memoirs to Olive Gilbert and they were published in 1850s as The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave. This book, and her presence as a speaker, made her a sought-after figure on the anti-slavery woman's rights lecture circuit. Harriet Tubman was closely associated with Abolitionist John Brown and was well acquainted with other abolitionists, including Frederick Douglas, Jermain Loguen, and Gerrit Smith. After freeing herself from slavery, Tubman worked at various activities to save to finance her activities as a Conductor of the Underground Railroad. She is believed to have conducted approximately 300 persons to freedom in the North. The tales of her exploits reveal her highly spiritual nature, as well as a grim determination to protect her charges and those who aided them. Her strategy was to show confidence to the people she was responsible for. Like Truth, she used words to influence others. She always expressed confidence that God would aid her efforts, and threatened to shoot any of her charges who thought to turn back. For example, Tubman had a very short rule, which implied death to anyone who talked of giving out and going back. She would give all to understand that times were very critical and the refore no foolishness would be indulged in on the road. Her subjects were greatly invigorated by Harriet's blunt and positive manner and threat of extreme measures. When William Still published The Underground Railroad in 1871, he included a letter from Thomas Garret, the Stationmaster of Wilmington Delaware. In this letter, Garret describes Tubman as Moses. He success was wonderful. Time and time again she made successful visits to Maryland on the Underground Railroad, and would be absent for weeks at a time, running daily risks while making preparations for herself and her passengers. Great fears were entertained for her safety, but she seemed wholly devoid of personal fear?she would not suffer one of her party to whimper once, about giving out and going back, however wearied they might be by the hard travel day and night. John Brown was an American abolitionist, born in Connecticut and raised in Ohio. Unlike Truth and Hubman's peaceful strategies, he felt passionately and violently that he must fight to end slavery. The success of the pro-slavery forces, especially their lack of Lawrence, aroused Brown, and in order to cause a restraining fear he, with four of his sons and two other men, led the murder of five pro-slavery men on the banks of the Pottawatomie River. He stated that he was an instrument in the hand of God. His exploits as a leader of an antislavery bank received wide publicity, especially in abolitionist journals, and as Old Brown of Osawatomie he became nationally known. Brown did not end there. In October 1856, Brown

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Dell Jit Essays

Dell Jit Essays Dell Jit Paper Dell Jit Paper Dell – Supply Chain Management Case Study 1 Case Contents 1. Introduction 2 2. Dell – Company Overview . 2 3. Dell Products and Services .. 3 4. Dell – Key Facts . 4 5. Dell Timeline. 6. Dell – Business Segment Information.. 6 7. Dell’s Evolving Supply Chain Strategy. 7 7. 1. Typical Working of Dell’s Supply Chain .. 7 7. 2. Five key strategies in Dell’s successful Direct Model .. 7 7. 3. A supply chain with old technology is of little value .. 8 8. Restructuring at Dell . 8. 1. New Distribution Channels – Direct Model and Retail Strategy .. 8 9. Integrating the Supply Chain . 9 This case study covers the following issues: 1. Examine and analyze Dell’s Direct model, its basic working, success and future challenges 2. Typical Working of Dell’s Supply Chain and future supply chain challenges 3. Highlights Dell’s evolving Supply Chain practices and strategy and steps being taken by it to recapture its lost market leader position Case Study Keywords: Dell, Direct model, Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Strategies, Build-to-order model, Inventory optimization, PC Manufacturing, Retail Distribution Channel, HP, Notebook computers, Desktop personal computers, Competitive Business Strategies, Sustaining competitive advantage, Michael Dell 1 Please note: This case study was compiled from published sources, and is intended to be used as a basis for class discussion. Accuracy of information cannot be guaranteed. Please do not copy without permission.  © casestudyinc. com 2008 1. Introduction Dell thinks about their offerings as microprocessors, disk drives and frames-per-second graphics. But consumers just want a computer they can be proud of when they show it to their friends, listen to music, watch videos and do office work† Christian Terwiesch, a Wharton professor Dell has been following its unique ‘direct build-to-order’ sales model for more than 20 years. Customers can plan their own configuration and place orders directly with the company via the phone or its Web site. Over the years, Dell’s supply chain efficiencies and direct sales gave it a competitive advantage. In 2006 however, Dell faced several problems. Many customers complained about long delays in supplies. Recall of Sony battery cells in its laptops brought undesirable media hype to the company. Increasing discontent of customers led to a slowdown in sales. Consequently, Dell lost its market leadership to HewlettPackard Co. (HP). Industry analysts felt that, with Dells competitors also improving their supply chains and matching Dells direct model, the company had been losing its competitive edge. Dell will have to bear additional costs with its foray into retail distribution thereby minimizing its cost advantage. Besides, profit margins of Dell will drop further since it will have to offer incentives to compete with HP in retail stores. Though Dell spruced up its product design and range but Apple is clearly far ahead of it. Many experts feel that such new initiatives will only distract Dell from its supply chain operations. 2. Dell – Company Overview Dell is a leading technology company, offering a wide range of computer product categories. Its product categories include: desktop computer systems, mobility products (notebooks), servers, storage, software and peripherals, and services. Dell is the number one supplier of personal computers in the United States, and the number two supplier worldwide. Dell also offers various financing alternatives, asset management services, and other customer financial services. Dell has manufacturing locations worldwide. Dell’s build-to-order manufacturing model allows it to substantially reduce costs and at the same time offering customers the ability to customize their product purchases. 3. Dell Products and Services Product Lines and Brands Desktop PCs OptiPlex Dimension XPS Alienware Vostro Servers and Networking PowerEdge and PowerConnect Storage Dell | EMC and Dell PowerVault Mobility XPStm and Alienware, Inspiron and Latitude lines of notebook computers Software and Peripherals Dell branded Printers, software titles, televisions, notebook accessories, networking and wireless products, digital cameras, power adapters, scanners, and other products Enhanced Services Infrastructure Consulting Services Deployment Services. Asset Recovery and Recycling Services. Training Services Enterprise Support Services Client Support services Managed Lifecycle services Financial Services Various customer financial services for business and onsumer customers in the U. S. through Dell Financial Services L. P 4. Dell – Key Facts Dell: Quick Facts Company Type Corporate Headquarters Revenues Industry Employees Manufacturing Facilities Distribution Product Lines Brands Major Competitors Business/Growth Strategy Key Executives Name, (age),Designation Website Public (NASDAQ: DELL) Round Rock, Texas $57. 4 billion (fiscal 2007) Hardware, PC Manufacturing Approximately 90,500 total employees (Fiscal 2007) Brazil - El Dorado do Sul Florida - Miami (Alienware) North Carolina - Winston-Salem Ohio - West Chester Tennessee - Lebanon and Nashville Texas - Austin Ireland - Limerick and Athlone (Alienware) China - Xiamen Malaysia - Penang Worldwide Desktop PCs Mobility products Servers and Storage Software and peripherals and Services OptiPlex Dimension XPS Dell Precision and Alienware MJ-12 ® PowerEdge Dell PowerVault Inspiron Latitude HP Acer Lenovo Direct customer model Highly efficient manufacturing and logistics, and New distribution channels to reach customers Michael S. Dell (42) Chairman of the Board of Directors and CEO Donald J. Carty (61) Vice Chairman and CFO Michael R. Cannon (54) President, Global Operations Stephen J. Felice (50) Senior VP and President, Asia Pacific-Japan Mark Jarvis (44) Senior VP, Chief Marketing Officer David A. Marmonti (48) Senior VP and President, EMEA www. dell. com 5. Dell Timeline Dell Timeline 1983 Michael Dell used to upgrade IBM compatible PCs in his spare. (He was a freshman at the University of Texas, Austin) 1984 Michael Dell established PCs Ltd with sales US$ 6 million in its first full year of operations 1985 Turbo PC, first computer introduced by the company. Turbo PC was advertised in computer magazines and sold directly to customers 993 Dell joins the ranks of top-five computer system makers worldwide 1996 Dell pioneers Internet sales with earnings approx 1 million dollars per day just seven months after launch of www. dell. com 1998 The company changed its name to Dell Computer Corporation 1999 Dell introduces E-support tool to provide online technical support 2000 Online sales continue to grow to $50 millio n per day 2001 Dell achieves No. 1 ranking on global market share 2003 Dell launches Dell Recycling initiative 2004 Inventory turnover rate in Dell was at 107 times a year, compared to 8. 5 times at HP and 17. times in IBM. 2005 â€Å"America’s Most Admired Company† – Fortune Magazine 2005, 2006 Dell faced several problems, and lost its position as the largest selling PC manufacturer to HP 2007 Dell announced that it planned to move most of its global supply chain and manufacturing operations to Singapore, which would function as the companys shared headquarters 2007 Michael Cannon assumes responsibility as the Head of Global Operations Organization 2007 Michael Dell (Michael) returned as CEO on January 31, 2007 2007 Retail partnerships with Wal-Mart, Staples, Gome, Bic Camera and Carphone Warehouse 2007 Dell launches the Direct2Dell corporate blog and other idea forums to listen and engage customers 6. Dell – Business Segment Information Dell conducts operations worldwide. Dell is managed in three geographic regions: Americas Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Asia Pacific-Japan (APJ). Major Business Segment Based in Americas Round Rock, Texas EMEA Bracknell, England APJ Singapore Covers Business sales to corporate, government, healthcare, education, and small and medium business customers U. S. Consumer sales primarily to individual consumers and selected retail partners Covers Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Covers the Asian countries of the Pacific Rim as well as Australia, New Zealand, and India 7. Dell’s Evolving Supply Chain Strategy Dell’s past performance has been the result of its direct customer model. Dell’s success is attributed to a constant focus on delivering directly to its customers, related technology and services at the best value. Dell’s operations involve highly efficient manufacturing and logistics to lower the cost of technology. 7. 1. Typical Working of Dell’s Supply Chain Dell Supply Chain works as follows: 1. Customer places an order, either by phone or through the Internet on its website . Dell processes the order in 2-3 days by evaluating financial feasibility (credit checking) and technical feasibility (technical con? guration) 3. Dell processes the order to one of its manufacturing locations 4. These plants can put together, test, and package the product in about eight hours 5. Dell typically plans to ship a ll orders no later than ? ve days after receipt 7. 2. Five key strategies in Dell’s successful Direct Model Five key strategies in Dell’s successful Direct Model Rapid time to volume Built to order products Elimination of reseller markups Superior customer service and support Low inventory and capital investment 7. 3. A supply chain with old technology is of little value The direct model involves bypassing retailers and selling personal computer systems directly to customers. This helps avoid the delays and costs of an additional stage (holding inventory) in the supply chain. Typically, each technology component loses about 0. 5 to 2 percent in a rapidly changing environment. A supply chain with old technology is of little value. Dell maintained very little inventory and concentrated on pacing its products through its supply chain. This also meant that there was no question of selling old products at a discount. 8. Restructuring at Dell Dell failed to meet its quarterly financial forecasts. Consequently, Dell lost its market leadership to Hewlett-Packard Co. (HP). In order to settle a few accounting issues, the company decided to restate its financial results for the last four years. Michael Dell had to take the CEO’s responsibility again, replacing Kevin Rollins. Michael Dell felt the importance of increasing the capacity, via the direct model, to manufacture close to its customer and fully integrate its supply chain into one global organization. To do so Dell had to innovate and adapt its supply chain model to help drive differentiated product design, manufacturing and distribution models. He began a series of restructuring exercises. 8. 1. New Distribution Channels – Direct Model and Retail Strategy While part of the restructuring involved cutting 8,000 jobs, or 10. 0% of its workforce, the biggest surprise was the move of Dell to complement its ‘direct sales model’ with sale of PCs through retailer channels as well. To reach even more customers globally, Dell launched new distribution channels to reach commercial customers and individual consumers around the world. This meant moving from a model of direct sales to making its goods available in stores across the world. This move allowed Dell to reach customers that it could not reach directly previously. From June 2007, it started placing its products in the shelves of Wal-Mart and Sams Club stores. In December 2007, Dell also announced that its Dell laptops and desktop computers will be sold through Tesco stores in Britain and Ireland as well as the high-growth eastern European markets of Poland, Czech Republic, and Slovakia. In U. S. Asia and Europe, Dell added Best Buy, WalMart, Staples, Chinas Gome Stores, Japans Bic Camera, Frances Carrefour and British phone retailer, Carphone Warehouse to sell its products at nearly 10,000 retail outlets worldwide. In December 2007, Dell also chose WPP, the worlds second-largest marketing, media and communications conglomerate after Omnicom, to create a new agency that will handle $4. 5 billion in accounts over the next three years. Dell hoped that creati ng the agency would increase the time and money spent focusing on marketing and customers rather than pitching for the next project 9. Integrating the Supply Chain Earlier, Dells manufacturing, supply chain and procurement activities functioned separately. Procurement functioned as a standalone unit, the regional business executives were in-charge of manufacturing, and supply chain was a part of the worldwide operations of the company. All Dells factories had been managed regionally, and procurement functioned as a separate division. Michael aimed to integrate its supply chain and achieve higher efficiency and quality through Global Operations Organization (GOO). GOO is Dells center for integrating its global manufacturing, procurement

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

The Islands Cuba, Barbados, and the Netherlands Antilles Essay

The Islands Cuba, Barbados, and the Netherlands Antilles - Essay Example Many of the original inhabitants died from diseases that were brought to Cuba by the arriving sailors. The first Spanish settlements were established in Cuba in 1511. This corresponds closely to the first arrival of the Spanish in the Netherlands Antilles in the early 1500s. The Spanish also contacted Barbados in 1536. Spanish conquistadors seized the Caribs on Barbados to be used as plantation slaves and by the time the British settlements arrived in the 1620s, the island was uninhabited. Within 100 years of contact by Spanish explorers, all three native populations had been eradicated or enslaved. During the 1600s, the rule of the islands changed hands from the Spanish to other European countries. Cuba remained a Spanish colony while Barbados was settled as a British colony. The Dutch captured the Netherlands Antilles in the 1600s. Under European colonial rule, all three islands experienced similar situations during the years 1600-1900. During these centuries, all three colonies exploited the sugar market. The large sugar plantations necessitated the importation of slavery. The slave labor was primarily from Africa, though Barbados imported slaves from the Celtic nations of Scotland and Ireland. Slavery was abolished in all three colonies in the middle of the 19th century. ... The descendants of the freed slaves continue to dominate the populations of these islands. Descendants of the Celts that were imported to Barbados are some of the poorest inhabitants there today. During the centuries of large sugar plantations and slavery, the islands were ruled by the monarchies of the Dutch, England, and Spain. Cuba, which had come under Spanish rule, suffered during these years from a repressive rule. Barbados and the Netherlands Antilles were under colonial rule that was less oppressive. The Spanish rule in Cuba resulted in a revolt against Spanish rule in 1898, which ultimately resulted in the Spanish-American war. During this period, Cuba ousted the Spanish and it became an American protectorate. Barbados fared better during this period, but the descendent slave population continued to live outside the mainstream political spectrum. Barbados had disenfranchised the female vote and also had an income qualification to be able to vote. Unrest at the beginning of the 20th century led to massive uprisings by the descendants of former slaves. In 1942, the income qualification was lowered and women were allowed to vote. While the English ruled Barbados was moving towards greater freedom, Cuba was inching into a series of oppressive dictatorships. Fulgencio Batista was the military leader and later President of Cuba beginning in 1933. Batista ruled a corrupt and repressive police state. During his rule, he often silenced his critics through violence, which spawned an organized opposition led by Fidel Castro. Castro's supporters were able to oust Batista in 1959 when he fled the country. At the time, Castro was seen as a pro-democracy movement and self-rule was sweeping the Caribbean nations. In 1954 the Netherlands Antilles had become an